Un SI bien urbanisé : ça veut dire quoi ?

L’urbanisation est une démarche de structuration du système d’information qui vise à réduire les coûts et les délais de réponse du SI aux besoins métiers, en rationalisant le système d’information, en le rendre plus évolutif et plus simple à maintenir.

PRINCIPES D’UN SI BIEN URBANISE

La cohérence est la première caractéristique d’un SI bien urbanisé. L’organisation et le découpage des briques applicatives doit être en phase avec les processus et l’organisation de l’entreprise, en assurant :

  • L’absence de redondances fonctionnelles
  • Une centralisation et la mutualisation des fonctionnalités et des briques transverses (pilotage, authentification & gestion de compte, échanges de données, …)
  • Une bonne gouvernance des données métier assurée via des référentiels
  • Des interactions entre les briques applicatives permettant de couvrir les processus métiers transverses

La Cohérence du SI est une condition essentielle de sa rationalisation. D’une part parce qu’elle limite de fait le nombre et la complexité des briques applicatives, d’autre part parce qu’elle met à disposition des briques transverses sur lesquelles les nouveaux projets peuvent s’appuyer.

La seconde caractéristique d’un SI bien urbanisé est la relative indépendance des briques applicatives qui le composent : on parle de « couplage faible ». Cette indépendance n’est souvent que partielle, parce que c’est notamment l’interaction de ces briques qui permet de couvrir les processus complexes. Cependant, limiter la dépendance des applications entre elles permet d’agir sur chaque brique applicative en limitant les impacts, et donc de faire évoluer le système d’information plus rapidement, de limiter les coûts et de simplifier la gouvernance. Cela implique :

  • De réaliser un découpage applicatif calé sur les processus et les domaines métiers
  • De privilégier une approche par « services » (logique d’API), des implémentations techniques bien découplées (N-tiers) et idéalement de disposer d’une zone d’échange transverse « intergicielle » (ESB, ETL, EAI)
  • De mutualiser au maximum les flux de données (c.-à-d. utiliser un même flux « générique » pour plusieurs alimenter plusieurs consommateurs)

PROPOSITION DE SI MODÈLE URBANISE

Pour rendre le propos plus concret, je propose ci-dessous un modèle de SI urbanisé générique relativement simple, mais dans lequel la plupart des entreprises peuvent s’inscrire.

modeleSIurbanise

  1. Les référentiels sont des briques applicatives autonomes et mutualisées qui exposent des services de consultation et de gestion et qui assurent la cohérence et l’intégrité des données métier.
  2. Les systèmes opérants rassemblent l’ensemble des briques applicatives qui implémentent les processus métier de l’entreprise : gestion commerciale, facturation, comptabilité, gestion de stocks, etc.
  3. Le système d’échange n’est pas obligatoire, mais contribue fortement au découplage des briques applicatives et à la mutualisation des flux. Attention cependant à ne pas en faire un goulet d’étranglement du SI : les flux directs entre les systèmes opérant et les référentiels sont à privilégier lorsque c’est possible et pertinent.
  4. La brique de pilotage est idéalement mutualisée et transverse. Cela n’exclut pas de disposer d’un minimum de fonctionnalités de pilotage au niveau des systèmes opérants, mais seule une brique de pilotage transverse alimentée par l’ensemble du SI est en mesure de réaliser l’ensemble des croisements de données nécessaires (on parle de vue « 360° »)
  5. Un moteur de recherche transverse est également une brique optionnelle, mais peut représenter une vraie solution pour améliorer les performances sur certains usages nécessitant de remonter rapidement des informations réparties aux quatre coins du SI. Attention cependant à ne pas utiliser les moteurs de recherche à mauvais escient !
  6. La brique «X-net » rassemble les sites Internet, Intranet et Extranet mis à disposition des clients, partenaires ou collaborateurs de l’entreprise. Ces portails ou applications web s’appuient au maximum sur les données et les services exposés par les référentiels et les systèmes opérants.

COMMENT URBANISER SON SYSTÈME D’INFORMATION ?

La démarche d’urbanisation du SI commence par une analyse du SI existant qui permet d’identifier les briques applicatives, les fonctionnalités, les données et les flux associés. Cette analyse se traduit par une cartographie du système d’information, plus ou moins étendue qui peut prendre 4 formes différentes :

  • Une vue métier permet de représenter les processus métiers et l’organisation de l’entreprise
  • Une vue fonctionnelle permet d’affiner la vue métier en déclinant les processus en fonctionnalités.
  • Une vue applicative permet de représenter les différentes briques applicatives et leurs relations (flux)
  • Une vue technique décrit l’implémentation technique des briques applicatives, et en particulier les éléments structurants de l’infrastructure. (ce n’est cependant pas une représentation de l’architecture technique détaillée)

Pour ma part, je n’ai jamais vu l’intérêt concret de la vue métier, et je privilégie une représentation hybride mélangeant la vision applicative, technique (mais très simplifiée et limitée aux éléments significatifs) et fonctionnelle (mais au niveau des macro-fonctionnalités) qui a le mérite d’être plus complète et plus compréhensible.

Une bonne connaissance de l’existant est un point de départ nécessaire pour envisager les évolutions à réaliser et la trajectoire associée pour faire évoluer le SI vers une cible correctement urbanisée. Cependant, cela n’engage pas nécessairement l’entreprise dans un plan correctif consécutif. En effet, la « réurbanisation » du système d’information fait rarement l’objet de projets dédiés, parce qu’il est souvent difficile de leur associer un ROI immédiat et mesurable. En revanche, une vision de la cible à atteindre permettra de concevoir des solutions correctement urbanisées (et donc plus économiques et plus rapides à mettre en œuvre) en réponse aux futurs besoins métiers, et de faire avancer la trajectoire de manière opportuniste.

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